The discovery of insulin in 1922 by Frederick Banting and Charles Best is still one of the most spectacular in the history of medicine achievements. Before the availability of insulin , a newly diagnosed IT'D children survived on average patients were treated with low-calorie diets year restriction on average 500 to 700 calories per day. So these were strict dietary restrictions that patients are forced to count the exact number of bays that could consume every day and are labeled as AA € € noncompliance if added extra food for consumption in the diet. Surviving patients with diabetes lose an extraordinary amount of weight still remain below the threshold for the development of diabetic retroactions ( DA ), provided they can keep their starvation diets .
Leonard Thompson , 14, was the first patient to receive an insulin injection. Weighing only 65 pounds for admission to the Toronto General Hospital , two years after being diagnosed with diabetes, Leonard appeared pale, with a distended abdomen and acetone odor of breath. AA € SAL of us knew that he was condemned, AA € wrote a medical student in high attendance.2 The child had survived a caloric intake of only 450 calories a day, enough to not become a ketosis. Eager to prove its unpurified pancreatic extract in humans instead of dogs , Dr. Banting, a general surgeon by profession, Leonard injected with 15 ml of a brown Muck AA € € January 11, 1922 . ( The selected dose is 50 % of the dose to be adapted to a dog of the same weight . ) Blood glucose decreased by Leonard 440 mg to 320 mg per dl dl and continued to have entourage . Unfortunately , Leonard has developed multiple injections of sterile abscess. Banting thought
that his experience was a failure , despite the 25% improvement in the alchemic response to the extract.
Biochemist , James Coli ( who shared the Nobel Prize in Banting and Best in 1923 ) was able to purify the extract in its own laboratory . January 23, 1922 , Leonard Thompson received 5 ml of purified drug, followed by a second dose of 20 ml 6 hours later. The next day he received two injections of 10 ml . Your initial level of blood glucose of 520 mg per dl fell to 120 mg per dl within 24 hours and entourage disappeared . The condition of the patient continued to improve with extract insulin.
Compliance has been one of the weakest points of Leonard . During a celebration to commemorate the nth anniversary of the discovery of insulin, diabetes appears in the world became comatose after drinking too much alcohol and celebration cakes . Fortuna again dominated , allowing Leonard survive another hospital until finally succumbing to pneumonia at age 27 .
The first commercial insulin preparations contain numerous impurities and varied in power up to 25% by lot . In 1930 , the first long-acting insulin preparation procaine zinc ( PI ) , has been marketed , which reduces the number of injections needed to replacement.3 good PI insulin has been used once per day without adding the ' short -acting insulin , setting a trend that lasted until 1950 when MPH and zinc ( Lenten ) insulin is marketed. For the next 25 years , diabetes has been treated with two injections of MPH and regular insulin with the famous 2/3: proportion of 1/3, in which high doses of insulin were administered with breakfast. In the U.S.S.R. , the introduction of human insulin eliminated insulin allergies and immune -mediated commonly observed cosmetically disfiguring allotropy patients require AA € rotate place your photos to avoid areas of skin atrophy.4 In the U.S.S.R. , the relationship between improved alchemic control and reduce diabetes-related complications was confirmed.5 6
Absorption and pharmacological actions of conventional insulin capacity does not correspond to the physiological nature of endogenous insulin . Patients experienced significant daily alchemic changes, including hypoglycemia, while maintaining acceptable levels of AC . In an attempt to mimic the action of endogenous insulin Normal pancreas, insulin analogs have been developed . The first insulin analog lisper was introduced in 1996 followed shortly by insulin apart. The last fast-acting analog , insulin cuisine , became available in 2005. Table 5-1 lists the preparations currently marketed insulin analog . Insulin analogies are more physiological than MPH and regular insulin , allowing patients to live more flexibility and security of their treatment regimens .